We can group financial ratios into five broad categories. Ratio analysis is the most popular trend to evaluate a banks performance over years or with other companies in an industry. Hence, to interpret the ratios, the user should be aware of the rules followed in the preparation of financial statements and also their nature and limitations. A to z in banking financial ratio analysis with case study. If the current ratio is significantly higher, it is a clear indication that. For a correct analysis of the companys financial situation more liquidity ratios have to be considered and their trend also. The analysis of key financial performances of banks 3 loans. The ratio of apples to oranges is 200 100, which we can more conveniently express as 2. Interestearning assets consist of liquid assets mainly cash and balances with central bank, due from.

Financial analysis of nabil bank limited a proposal report 1. Thus, the limitations of financial statements also form the limitations of the ratio analysis. Computation and analysis of the liquidity are made by a system of ratios based on the data within the financial statements. Ratio analysis is a form of financial statement analysis that is used to obtain a quick indication of a firms financial performance in several key areas. S subalakshmi et al financial ratio analysis of sbi 2009 2016 doi. Limitations of ratio analysis ratios are popular, learn. Jan 25, 2019 to calculate the return to shareholders ratio, divide the dividends and capital gains of a stock by the price of the stock at the start of the period being analyzed, usually a calendar year. Another beneficial use is to compare the quick ratio with the current ratio. Bank is a business enterprise that sells certain types of products. The use of financial ratios is a timetested method of analyzing a business. Pdf financial ratios of major commercial banks researchgate. Selecting key financial ratios from a significant number of possibilities however, presents a challenge.

A ratio is a statistical yardstick that provides a measure of the relationship between two variables or figures. Financial ratios are widely used to analyze a banks performance, specifically to gauge and benchmark the banks level of solvency and liquidity. Pdf project report on financial analysis of icici bank. This paper investigates the performance of south africas commercial banking sector for the period 2005 2009. We will then consider in section d how ratio analysis can help us to judge a business performance and lead to action for its. In financial analysis, a ratio is used as a benchmark for evaluation the financial position and performance of a firm. Meaning, classification and limitation of ratio analysis. Basic financial management and ratio analysis for mfis page iii microsave marketled solutions for financial services 3. Ratio analysis is an important tool that is used in interbusiness and intrabusiness comparison.

Banks, trading and availableforsale securities, non. It is expressed as a percentage of a banks risk weighted credit exposures. Project report on financial analysis of icici bank. Pdf financial ratios analysis in determination of bank. Since all assets have their sources, it is logical that banks balance sheet assets and liabilities must always be balanced. Financial statement and ratio analysis introduction. Financial ratios top 28 financial ratios formulas, type. Ratio analysis is broadly classified into four types. Ratio analysis is used as a benchmark for effective control of performance of business activities. It focuses on ratios that reflect the profitability, efficiency, financing leverage, and other vital information about a business.

If the term wants to take a shortterm loan from the bank, the bankers also. Financial ratio analysis involves the calculation and comparison of ratios which are derived from the information given in the companys financial statements. The camels framework capital, asset quality, management, earnings, liquidity and sensitivity to market risk and key ratios to make a preliminary assessment of the performance and financial health of a bank. A ratio analysis is a quantitative analysis of information contained in a companys financial statements. Factor analysis groups ratios that move together and does not combine those ratios that do not. Since all assets have their sources, it is logical that bank s balance sheet assets and liabilities must always be balanced.

Comparative ratio analysis helps you identify and quantify your companys strengths and weaknesses, evaluate its financial position, and understand the risks you may be taking. Ratio analysis is the process of determining and interpreting numerical relationships based on financial statements. The study found that overall bank performance increased considerably in the first two years of the analysis. In my report i had to study cbls financial statements for the. Pdf ratio analysis banking financial statements fahad. Financial ratios for the commercial banking industry. Thus, the management is able to concentrate on unprofitable activities and consider the necessary steps to overcome the existential shortcomings. A financial ratio is a comparison between one bit of financial information and another. For example, a capital adequacy ratio defined by total equitytotal assets teta should group with another capital adequacy ratio defined by total debttotal assets tdit a.

Unit 1 ratios and interpretation as we learnt in our earlier studies, accounting information is used to. For a quick indication of a businesss financial health in key areas, ratio analysis comes handy. For a correct analysis of the companys financial situation more liquidity ratios have to. Financial ratios are categorized according to the financial aspect of the business which the ratio measures. The balance sheet and the statement of income are essential, but they are only the starting point for successful financial management. Use ratio analysis in the working capital management. Financial analysis of banking institutions 4 chapter 2. Ratio analysis provides business owners with information on trends within their own company, often called trend or timeseries analysis, and trends within their industry, called industry or crosssectional analysis. Two additional measures that are sometimes reported are the equityasset ratio and. As with any other form of analysis, comparative ratio techniques arent definitive and their results shouldnt be viewed as gospel. An absolute value of a liquidity ratio is not relevant.

Washington, deal extensively with interpretation of financial statements. Ratio analysis formula list ratio analysis formula with. Ratio analysis is a useful management tool that will improve your understanding of financial results and trends over time, and provide key indicators of organizational performance. The resulting differential interest income interest earnings on assets minus interest costs on deposits will go to meet.

Financial ratios are employed to measure the profitability, liquidity and credit quality performance of five large south african based commercial banks. This users guide does not present detailed indepth instructions on ratio analysis, nor does it. The historical trends of these ratios can be used to make inferences about a companys financial condition, its. Ratio analysis is used to evaluate various aspects of a companys. Nov 20, 2019 financial ratio analysis is one of the most popular financial analysis techniques for companies and particularly small companies. A ratio is a mathematical relation between one quantity and another. Ratio analysis is a technique of financial analysis to compare data from financial statements to history or competitors. Pdf this paper uses dynamic panel data methods to examine the determinants of banks performance in the german banking sector.

The second type of financial ratio analysis is the turnover ratio. Wall street investment firms, bank loan officers and knowledgeable business owners all use financial ratio analysis to learn more about a companys current financial health as well as its potential. Inventory 360 converts the inventory turnover ratio into an average days turndays inventory turnover inventory on hand figure. Apply ratio analysis to financial statements to analyze the success, failure, and progress of your business. This study seeks to study the bank lending functions in nigerian banks, with a view to ironing out the factors militating against the attainment of sound lending which contribute in no small measure to the nonrecovery of loans. Current liabilities current liabilities you should note that this ratio is not expressed as a percentage. Although ratio analysis suffers from a number of limitations as enumerated above, yet it is a very useful and widely used tool of analyzing the financial statements.

To help identify the short term liquidity of a firm, this ratio is used. A financial ratio analysis of commercial bank performance. Financial statement and ratio analysis lo1 the financial statements 1. Fahad ahmed khan hassan ali khan university of karachi analysis of financial statements financial statement analysis is defined as the process of. Analysis of roe trends in the six omani commercial banks over the period 1997. Ratio analysis provides a detailed account of profitable and unprofitable activities. This type of ratio indicates the efficiency with which an enterprises resources are utilized. Financial ratio formulas prepared by pamela peterson drake 1. Financial ratio analysis is one of the most popular financial analysis techniques for companies and particularly small companies. The basics and use of this ratio are similar to the current ratio in that it gives users an idea of the ability of a company to meet its shortterm liabilities with its shortterm assets. But despite its being indispensable, the ratio analysis suffers from a number of limitations. This course is designed for analysts who have limited or no experience in the analysis of financial statements for. Current ratio also known as the working capital ratio the formula for calculating this ratio is current assets or current assets.

Basic financial management and ratio analysis for mfis toolkit. Although it may be somewhat unfamiliar to you, financial ratio analysis is neither sophisticated nor complicated. Following are financial ratios commonly calculated. Aug 20, 2014 ratio analysis provides a detailed account of profitable and unprofitable activities. Ratio analysis is a powerful tool of financial analysis. Managers will use ratio analysis to pinpoint strengths and weaknesses from which strategies and initiatives can be formed.

For each asset type financial ratio can be calculated separately. This users guide does not present detailed indepth instructions on ratio analysis, nor does it assign particular value to individual ratios or groups of ratios. Oct 18, 20 a project report on financial assistance by the cbs bank mba finance project report. Project report on ratio analysis of sbi pdf state bank of indiaratio analysis. Financial ratios for the commercial banking industry loyola. Ratio analysis is a very important tool of financial analysis. A financial ratio is a relative magnitude of two financial variables taken from a businesss financial statements, such. Useful conclusions may be arrived at by ratio analysis provided the abovementioned limitations are kept in mind while using the results obtained from ratio analysis. Bank financial ratio analysis arose in response to this need. As a general rule, any analysis should compare the bank to its peer group, consider the banks trends over time, and also be aware of trends and changes in peer group averages. Manikandan3 1,2department of commerce, standard fireworks rajaratnam college for women, india 3department of commerce, ayya nadar janaki ammal college, india. Mar 05, 2015 26 ratio analysis capital adequacy ratio.

It employs a crosscountry study from a sample of 110 developing and developed countries during 19942009. Guide to financial ratios analysis a step by step guide to. The objective of the study is to estimate important financial ratios of major commercial banks in oman and compare their financial management practices as indicated by the ratios. Funders may use ratio analysis to measure your results against other organizations or make judgments concerning management effectiveness and mission impact for ratios to be useful and meaningful, they must be.

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